GIMPS Discovers 44th Mersenne Prime,
232,582,657-1 is now the Largest Known Prime.
ORLANDO, Florida, September 11, 2006 —
Less than a year after their last discovery, the Central Missouri State University (CMSU) team, led by professors
Curtis Cooper and Steven Boone, has broken their own record for the largest
known prime number. The CMSU team is part of the volunteer Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS) project which has found the last 10
record primes. At 9,808,358 digits, it is tantalizingly close to claiming the $100,000 award offered by an anonymous donor for finding a
10 million digit prime number.
The CMSU faculty used idle time on 700 campus lab PCs and free software from www.mersenne.org as part of a world-wide collaboration of tens of
thousands of computers working together to make this discovery. The software was developed by GIMPS founder, George Woltman, in Orlando, Florida, and grid computing pioneer Scott
Kurowski, in San Diego, California.
The new prime number, known as M32582657 or 232,582,657-1, was revealed on September 4th in the CMSU Department of Communication lab. The
previous record prime was found in the same lab just a few computers away.
Dr. Cooper and Dr. Boone have joined together are among tens of thousands of researchers participating in GIMPS. In addition to pursuing prime number discoveries, these individuals
also have a chance to win part of the 10 million digit prime number award. If GIMPS claims the $100,000
award administered by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, $25,000 will go to charity and a large portion will be given to the GIMPS participant that
discovers the prime number.
Chris Caldwell's authoritative web site on the largest known primes, shows the new prime at 9,808,358 digits eclipsies GIMPS' last
discovery of a 9,152,052 digit prime in December 2005. The new prime was independently verified in a week by Tony Reix of Bull S.A. in Grenoble,
France using 16 Itanium2 1.5 GHz CPUs of a Bull NovaScale 6160 HPC at Bull Grenoble Research Center, running the
Glucas program by Guillermo Ballester Valor of Granada, Spain. A second verification was completed by Jeff Gilchrist
of Elytra Enterprises Inc. in Ottawa, Canada using 11 days of time on 16 CPUs of an Itanium2 1.6 GHz server at SHARCNET.
The new prime is the 44th discovery in a special class of rare prime numbers known as Mersenne primes, named for French monk
Marin Mersenne, who studied these numbers more than 350 years ago.
George Woltman, who started GIMPS in 1996, said Mersenne primes today are important primarily to number theorists. He added, however, most GIMPS participants enjoy having a role in pure
mathematical research and the chance to make a little bit of history by finding a new Mersenne prime. "While we think we understand the frequency and distribution of Mersenne primes, it
has not been proven. Finds such as this one give us 'another piece of the puzzle' in confirming our theories," Woltman said. He noted that in the past Mersenne prime searches have led to
important advances in Fast Fourier Transforms (used in countless applications) as well as discovering computer hardware problems via rigorous stress testing. "The research project also
promotes interest in math by capturing the imagination of younger participants," Woltman said.
The 700 campus computers are part of an international grid called PrimeNet, consisting of 70,000 networked computers in virtually every time zone of the world. PrimeNet organizes the parallel
number crunching to create a virtual supercomputer running 24x7 at 22 trillion calculations per second, or "teraflops". This greatly accelerates the search. This prime, found in just 9 months,
would have taken 4,000 years on a single PC. Kurowski said, "GIMPS is an amazing project and CMSU's team exemplifies the dedication to international cooperative computing demonstrated by all
of GIMPS' participants."
"We've worked with Information Services to make sure we are not compromising the campus computing infrastructure," said Dr. Cooper, who got interested in this project over 7 years ago with
colleague Vince Edmondson. Edmondson, professor of mathematics, was instrumental in the campus effort until he passed away in 2003. "We owe a lot to all of the people on campus who have helped
with this project," Dr. Boone added.
The discovery is the tenth record prime found by the GIMPS project. In recognition of every GIMPS participant's contribution, credit for this prime will go to "C. Cooper, S. Boone, G. Woltman,
S. Kurowski, et al". Dr. Richard Crandall, who discovered the advanced transform algorithm used by the GIMPS program, offers a framed or unframed
poster with all 9.8 million digits displayed in an extremely small font — optional magnifying glass sold separately!
About Mersenne.org's Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search
The Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS) was formed in January 1996 by George Woltman to discover new world-record-size Mersenne primes. GIMPS
harnesses the power of tens of thousands of ordinary computers to search for these "needles in a haystack". Most GIMPS members join the search for the thrill of possibly discovering a record-setting,
rare, and historic new Mersenne prime. The search for more Mersenne primes is already under way. There may be smaller, as yet undiscovered Mersenne primes, and there certainly are larger Mersenne
primes waiting to be found. Anyone with a reasonably powerful PC can join GIMPS and become a big prime hunter. All the necessary software can be downloaded for free at
http://www.mersenne.org/. GIMPS is based in Orlando, Florida. Additional information may be found at http://www.mersenneforum.org/.
For More Information on Mersenne Primes
Prime numbers have long fascinated amateur and professional mathematicians. An integer greater than one is called a prime number if its only divisors are one and itself. The first prime numbers
are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc. For example, the number 10 is not prime because it is divisible by 2 and 5. A Mersenne prime is a prime number of the form 2p-1. The first Mersenne primes are
3, 7, 31, and 127 corresponding to P = 2, 3, 5, and 7 respectively. There are only 44 known Mersenne primes.
Mersenne primes have been central to number theory since they were first discussed by Euclid in 350 BC. The man whose name they now bear, the French monk
Marin Mersenne (1588-1648), made a famous conjecture on which values of p would yield a prime. It took 300 years
and several important discoveries in mathematics to settle his conjecture.
Previous GIMPS Mersenne prime discoveries were made by members in various countries. In December 2005, Curtis Cooper and Steven Boone discovered the
previous largest known prime number in the United States. In February 2005, Dr. Martin Nowak discovered the
42nd Mersenne prime in Germany. In May 2004, Josh Findley discovered the
41st Mersenne prime in the United States. In November 2003, Michael Shafer discovered the
40th Mersenne prime in the United States. In November 2001, Michael Cameron discovered the
39th Mersenne prime in Canada. In June 1999, Nayan Hajratwala discovered the
38th Mersenne prime in the United States. In January 1998, Roland Clarkson discovered the
37th Mersenne prime in the United States. In August 1997, Gordon Spence discovered the
36th Mersenne prime in the United Kingdom. In November 1996, Joel Armengaud discovered the
35th Mersenne prime in France.
There is a well-known formula that generates a "perfect" number from a Mersenne prime. A perfect number is one whose factors add up to the number itself. The smallest perfect number is 6 = 1 + 2 + 3.
The newly discovered perfect number is 232,582,656 * (232,582,657-1). This number is 19,616,714 digits long!
There is a unique history to the arithmetic algorithms underlying the GIMPS project. The programs that found the recent big Mersenne finds are based on a special algorithm. In the early 1990's,
Richard Crandall, Apple Distinguished Scientist, discovered ways to double the speed of what are called convolutions — essentially big multiplication
operations. The method is applicable not only to prime searching but other aspects of computation. During that work he also patented the Fast Elliptic Encryption system, now owned by Apple Computer,
which uses Mersenne primes to quickly encrypt and decrypt messages. George Woltman implemented Crandall's algorithm in assembly language, thereby producing a prime-search program of unprecedented
efficiency, and that work led to the successful GIMPS project.
School teachers from elementary through high-school grades have used GIMPS to get their students excited about mathematics. Students who run the free software are contributing to mathematical research.
Historically, searching for Mersenne primes has been used as a test for computer hardware. The free GIMPS program used by CMSU has identified hidden hardware problems in many PCs.